A Greek inscription that was found in1913 in Jerusalem that describes the dedication of a synagogue and hostel in Jerusalem. It dates to the first century CE and indicates that synagogues were in existence in Jerusalem even while the Temple was standing. It also notes that a "priest" was the head of this synagogue that had been founded by the ancestors. The synagogue was used for the reading of the Law and for the study of the precepts.
"Theodotos, son of Vettenos, priest and head of the synagogue, son of the head of the synagogue, who was also the son of the head of the synagogue, built the synagogue for the reading of the Law and for the study of the precepts, as well as the hospice [temporary residence] and the chambers and the bathing–establishment, for lodging those who need them, from abroad; it (the synagogue) was founded by his ancestors and the elders and the Simonides." (Translation from sign in Israel Museum where the object is on display)