View of the upper portions of the Turkish fortifications on the Damascus Gate. Left of center is a machicolation—the overhanging turret though which objects and fluids (e.g., molten lead, etc.) could be dumped on attackers below.
Also visible are “loopholes”—narrow slits through which arrows and/or bullets could be fired on attackers. Note also the crenelations and decorative merlons on the top of the wall.