View of one of the columns on which there are inscribed a menorah, a lulav (tree branches) to the left of the menorah, a shophar (ram's horn) to the right of the menorah, and above the menorah a cross.
Note the flames on the top of the seven branches of the menorah.
The above column was discovered while "cleaning out the nymphaeum" at Laodicea. The search for the Late Roman/Byzantine Jewish presence in Asia Minor is ongoing. The above column attests to a Jewish presence at Laodicea but its relationship to the Christians there is ambiguous. To this untrained eye it looks like the cross was added to the menorah. Did this mean that Christians and Jews were peacefully coexisting at Laodicea? Or was this an indication of Jewish Christians there? Or that Christianity had "superseded" Judaism?