Arad is located 18.5 mi. [30 km.] east–northeast of Beersheba. The Iron Age (Israelite) Citadel was excavated by Yohanan Aharoni in the 1960’s. It is situated on the northeastern lip of the eastern basin of the Biblical Negev. The region only receives about 12 inches of rain each year. Good grain crops are typically produced in only one of every four years. The soil in the area is a windblown "loess" soil.
Arad was not a city, but a Judean fortress guarding the southern approach to Hebron in the Hill Country of Judah. It also served as an administrative outpost at which taxes and tolls were collected.
The larger lower portion (Early Bronze Age) of the tell was excavated by Ruth Amiran — Click Here to view.