The Negev Highlands is the area south of the Biblical Negev and stretches all the way down to Elath on the shore of the Red Sea. It is a dry area 4 to 8 in. [100-200 mm.] of rain fall—less in the south than the north—and is composed of limestones and chalks. The highest elevation in the area is at Har Ramon 3,395 ft. [1,035 m.].
It is characterized by a series of ridges that run from the southwest to the northeast. On the ridges are three elliptical crater–like depressions called makhteshim in Hebrew.
It was very difficult to grow crops here, and basically caravans from southern Arabia passed through it on their way from Ma’an to Gaza.