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View looking down into one of the four rooms of the "Library." The Library is located above the northeast corner of the large courtyard (temenos) of the Temple of Athena.
The back wall of the library stretches across the back of the image and two side walls are perpendicular to it. Notice the holes in the back wall. The excavators believe that these held dowels that in turn supported shelves on which the scrolls were kept. In this room, a large statue of the Athena was discovered.
The library at Pergamum was established by Eumenes II (r. 197–160 B.C.) and was the second largest one in the Roman world—second only to the one in Alexandria Egypt. It is said to have housed over 200,000 volumes (scrolls and codices). It seems that the use of parchment was common at Pergamum, and some have suggested that the term "parchment" is related to the name "Pergamum." There is a legend that Mark Antony gave Cleopatra many volumes from the Library at Pergamum (41 B.C.) after the library at Alexandria had been damaged by Julius Caesar in 48 B.C.